All-night devotional festivals to the goddess called jagratas have been held for hundreds of years. However, a modernized form of jagrata has become so popular in many urban areas of India, it could be called a craze. (Kathleen Erndl, Victory to the Mother, 85) Jagratas are an excellent example of how traditional devotional practices skillfully incorporate modern technology and mass media but keep their traditional religious purpose.

                                               In jagratas, the Goddess is called upon to make herself a tangible, physical presence among her devotees. Devotees wait - often for hours - chanting, singing and making offerings to her. Frequently, after many hours, she will make her presence known by "playing", forcefully possessing someone in the room. Through the human medium, the Goddess can speak, give advice, grant boons and perform healing. This reaffirms for devotees not only the power of the goddess but also the belief in shakti, or the divine presence of the goddess in all matter.

In Panjab where jagratas are frequently held, microphones and loud speakers which blast devotional songs have now become standard objects used in these all-night festivities. Some devotional tunes even incorporate Western sounds and instruments like the saxophone and guitar. (Kathleen Erndl, Victory to the Mother, 89) Other traditional devotional songs to the goddess have largely been replaced by devotional lyrics sung to popular film tunes which some have termed "Devi disco"! (Kathleen Erndl, Victory to the Mother, 135) Film tunes are often easier to understand than traditional songs so they have added an increased degree of entertainment and accessibility to the practice of devotional singing.

However, some more conservative or traditional Hindus are not very enthusiastic about their replacement of the older songs. Still, most feel that it is better to worship the goddess through film tunes than not at all. For some, the use of film tunes is seen as a reflection of the spiritual degeneration of the times, but their inclusion in ritual is tolerated because it has prevented the jagratas from being abandoned entirely. (Kathleen Erndl, Victory to the Mother, 88)

Devotional songs set to film tunes are spread and popularized not only by jagratas, but also by movies and by the sale of cassette tapes which feature them. "Jai Santoshi Ma", a catchy tune which praises Santoshi Ma, is one of the most popular of these songs.

The technology of mass printing has enabled jagrata organizers to easily produce and distribute devotional pamphlets, promoting not only their own events, but also various goddesses. In fact, Santoshi Ma and her history first appeared and became known in such pamphlets.

Kathleen Erndl believes that the jagrata is well-suited to spreading the message of the goddess to modern Hindus and its "intercaste appeal, low level of ritual snobbishness and entertainment value" means that it includes members of the population who might not feel as fully integrated into more institutionalized religious rituals. (Kathleen Erndl, Victory to the Mother, 104)

For this reason, many like Erndl believe that modernization and all of the changes it has brought to goddess worship has not diminished its underlying religious nature in any way, but rather helped to propagate and make the traditional religious ideas even more available. (Kathleen Erndl, Victory to the Mother, 137) Others believe that modernization has actually acted as a democratizing force by including more people than ever in such worship.

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